Discover Luxurious Roman Sirmium During the 4th Century

Sirmium – History

Today’s Sremska Mitrovica hides traces of the once luxurious and powerful Roman city of Sirmium under its streets and houses. Its history can be traced from the time of August‘s campaign to Illyricum (35-33 BC), until 582, when the city fell under Avar rule. The Roman Empire probably occupied Sirmium during the Tiberius Wars in Pannonia (13-9 BC), and during the Flavian dynasty, Sirmium was given the status of a colony (Colonia Flavia).

It was very often used as a military base for campaigns against the barbarians who tirelessly threatened the border of this part of the Empire. From the establishment of the colony until the end of the 4th century, historical sources mention Sirmium as the temporary residence of many Roman emperors. From historical sources, we know that in the period from the 1st to the 3rd century, Domitian, Marcus Aurelius, Septimius Severus, Maximinus the Thracian, Claudius II the Gothic, Probus, Diocletian and the infamous usurper Regalianus stayed in Sirmium for a longer or shorter period, and that at least five Roman emperors were born in and around him: Decius Trajan, Aurelian, Probus, Maximian Herculius and Gratian.

The city reached its pinnacle of prosperity towards the conclusion of the 3rd century and throughout the 4th century, emerging as one of the principal capitals of the Roman Empire.

It intermittently served as the seat of power for notable Roman emperors including Diocletian, Licinius, Constantine the Great, Constantius II, Julian, Valentinian I, Gratian, and Theodosius. Through archaeological excavations of Sirmium, significant discoveries have been made, revealing not only the Imperial Palace alongside the Roman circus but also other imposing public structures such as the renowned “Licini’s Baths,” a granary (horreum), and bustling commercial and artisan quarters. Additionally, the excavation unearthed opulent urban villas and multi-story residential complexes known as insulae, providing insight into the living conditions of the city’s less affluent inhabitants.

The city boasted formidable ramparts for defense and received its water supply from an aqueduct originating from the source of the Vranjasha stream in Fruška Gora. Its streets were equipped with sewers and paved with stone, reflecting advanced urban infrastructure. During this period, the city housed workshops specializing in the crafting of diverse goods, including precious metals, glassware, ceramics, and bricks. Renowned Roman writer Ammianus Marcellinus, in the 4th century, hailed it as the illustrious and populous “mother of cities.”

Imperial Palace

During the construction of a modern residential building in 1957, a fortuitous discovery unearthed part of the remains of the late antique imperial complex. This serendipitous finding marked the commencement of systematic research into Sirmium, resulting in the identification of approximately 100 archaeological sites to date. In the late 1960s, the unearthing of the hippodrome provided compelling evidence to corroborate its historical significance. The palace-hippodrome complex, constructed between the end of the 3rd and the beginning of the 4th century, is intricately linked to the era of the tetrarchy and Emperor Diocletian’s reforms, which decentralized power from the traditional capital of Rome to various regional centers.

Situated in the southeastern precincts of the city, bordering the Sava River, the expansive complex sprawled across approximately 20 hectares. Beneath the sheltered expanse of the site lies what is conjectured to be the residential segment of the palace. Within this enclave, archaeologists unearthed a treasure trove of ancient relics, including some of Sirmium’s most exemplary and remarkably preserved mosaics, alongside frescoes, architectural embellishments, and remnants of a sophisticated floor heating system (hypocaust).

These mosaics, adorning nearly every chamber, span multiple construction phases, with the most recent dating back to the mid-fourth century and the oldest tracing their origins to the conclusion of the third century. Their diverse origins and chronological layers offer glimpses into the evolving architectural and artistic styles that characterized the complex’s development over time.

Discover Luxurious Roman Sirmium During the 4th Century
discover luxurious roman sirmium during the 4th century 6

City Basilica

The city basilica stands as the culmination of a series of churches uncovered in Sirmium, its discovery dating to the late 1970s, making it the sole church situated within the city walls to date. Preserved within the basement of a contemporary edifice, its remnants offer a window into the city’s religious fabric.

Positioned at the heart of Sirmium, proximate to the forum, the basilica boasts a foundation more intricate than its counterparts. Comprising a central nave flanked by two side naves that culminate in a transept, its layout reflects a grandeur befitting its central role. At the terminus of the central nave, a semicircular apse rises, featuring a raised platform housing the altar and seats reserved for the clergy, imbuing the basilica with an aura of sanctity and solemnity.

25 graves were found around the church and inside it. Based on the finds of coins, the building dates back to the first half of the 5th century. Historical sources that mention the construction of the church of St. Demetrius from this period, influenced that the remains of the city’s basilica are identified with the church dedicated to this saint. The cult of Saint Demetrius was of great importance in the city during the Middle Ages, when the settlement was named Civitas Sancti Demetrii after this saint, but also for the modern city of which he is the patron saint.

The Trade and Crafts Quarter

The trade and crafts quarter flourished along a key thoroughfare linking the forum to the western gate, serving as a bustling nexus of commerce and industry. Archaeologists uncovered an 11-meter-wide street in the northern sector, meticulously divided into three distinct zones. At its heart lay a 7-meter-wide central thoroughfare, meticulously paved with stone and featuring a vaulted drainage channel concealed beneath, facilitating the smooth flow of freight traffic.

Flanking either side of the road were sheltered pedestrian walkways (portici), offering respite from the elements for pedestrians and shoppers alike. Along this bustling avenue stood eight edifices, symmetrically positioned on either side, while a multitude of structures lay beyond the designated boundary line, interconnected by a network of passages, pathways, and corridors, attesting to the vibrant commercial activity that thrived within this dynamic quarter of the city.

Workshops and shops were located in them. The construction of the complex is related to the era of the tetrarchy. The construction of a defensive rampart in the southern part of the locality caused the demolition of a part of the craft and trade complex that continues to develop only around the main street.

Discover Luxurious Roman Sirmium During the 4th Century
Racer from Sirmiums’s hippodrome

Villa Urbana

Nestled within the residential expanse of Sirmium, in close proximity to the southern city wall, lies the villa, an architectural marvel that epitomizes luxury and refinement. This expansive complex of rooms sprawls across a vast area, evolving over time to manifest its grandeur. By the 3rd century, it had acquired a rectangular footprint, featuring rooms arranged in three distinct wings.

These wings are interconnected by a corridor, encircling an atrium-style inner courtyard adorned with a central open pool known as an impluvium. Amidst the tranquil ambiance of this courtyard oasis, residents of the villa would have indulged in moments of respite and contemplation, surrounded by the opulence of their surroundings.

As in all the more luxurious buildings in Sirmium, the walls of the rooms were painted with frescoes, and the floors were decorated with mosaics made of stone tesserae, ceramic tiles, or paved with bricks. The size of the villa and the rich decoration, although there are no other luxurious materials remaining, indicate the high standard of living of its inhabitants.

The room showcased within the villa boasts a distinctive basilica-like design, complete with an apse, representing the pinnacle of architectural refinement in the villa’s final phase of construction during the first half of the 4th century. Equipped with a sophisticated floor heating system known as a hypocaust, this space likely served as a prestigious venue for ceremonial receptions and lavish feasts.

The mosaic flooring, a testament to the villa’s opulence, stands as one of the most expansive discovered in Sirmium to date. Rich in intricate detail, the mosaic features an array of geometric motifs typical of the fourth-century floor decoration, including a striking central rosette surrounded by borders adorned with various rhombuses and braids. This exquisite craftsmanship reflects the villa owner’s penchant for luxury and artistic expression, transforming the room into a captivating setting for gatherings of distinction.

Economy Object

The site encompasses the western precincts of the imperial palace complex, serving as a focal point for economic activities. Nestled within the parkland, visitors encounter the remnants of the southern city rampart, characterized by a circular corner tower, alongside an economic edifice that once functioned as a granary (horeum). This structure comprises two distinct wings delineated by a meticulously paved courtyard.

Each wing features a series of smaller rooms, measuring approximately 10 by 5 meters, with opposing entrances. The northern tract boasts 16 rooms, while its southern counterpart comprises 17 rooms, collectively illustrating the site’s pivotal role in facilitating logistical and storage functions within the imperial palace complex.

The establishment of expansive storage facilities for grains, oils, wines, and other essential provisions underscores the imperative to ensure a steady supply for the emperor, military, administration, and officials, both within the palatial complex and during imperial travels. At the close of the 3rd century and the onset of the 4th century, a new rampart was erected to fortify the palace, enhancing its defensive capabilities. Concurrently, the economic building, constructed in the first half of the 4th century, saw intensive utilization during the latter half of the century, attesting to its vital role in sustaining the operational needs of the imperial court and its entourage.

Discover Luxurious Roman Sirmium During the 4th Century
Tourists in Emperor’s Palace


In the ongoing archaeological excavations at the Imperial Palace, researchers have uncovered approximately 350 square meters of remarkably preserved mosaic surfaces. These mosaics span various construction phases of the palace, with the earliest dating back to the conclusion of the 3rd century and the most recent to the middle of the 4th century. Among the mosaic designs, geometric polychrome patterns, commonly referred to as “geometric carpets,” are prevalent. These intricate designs, characteristic of the late Roman Empire period, offer invaluable insights into the artistic and architectural sophistication of the palace during its prime.

The mosaics discovered at the Imperial Palace exhibit characteristics reminiscent of Western-style artistry, bearing striking parallels to the mosaics found in Diocletian’s Palace in Split. Crafted using the opus tessellatum technique, whereby smaller stone cubes known as tesserae are intricately arranged, these mosaics showcase a diverse array of motifs. Among them are geometric patterns, floral designs, and intricate interweaves, each meticulously executed to adorn the floors of the palace in exquisite detail. This artistic tradition not only reflects the opulence and grandeur of the imperial court but also underscores the influence of Western artistic styles on the cultural landscape of the late Roman Empire.

Among the array of mosaics discovered, only one preserves a figural representation, depicting the god Mercury. Despite this singular example, the mosaics within the palatial complex undoubtedly stand as the epitome of artistic excellence in Sirmium. Their superior quality attests to the exacting standards of craftsmanship characteristic of imperial architecture during the Tetrarchy period in the Balkans. These mosaics not only showcase the technical mastery of ancient artisans but also serve as enduring testaments to the opulence and sophistication of the imperial court, immortalizing the splendor of a bygone era.

Discover Luxurious Roman Sirmium During the 4th Century
Mosaic – AI Imagined

People Also Ask:

Where is Sirmium located?

Sirmium was a city in the Roman province of Pannonia, located on the Sava River, on the site of modern Sremska Mitrovica in northern Serbia.

How old is Sirmium?

Archaeologists have found traces of organized human life on the site of Sirmium dating from 5,000 BC. The city was first mentioned in the 4th century BC and was originally inhabited by the Illyrians and Celts (by the Pannonian-Illyrian Amantini and the Celtic Scordisci).

When was Sirmium founded?

The City of Sirmium was mentioned for the first time in the 4th century BC as a settlement predominantly populated by Illyrians and Celts. The Romans invaded the region in the period between 35 and 33 BC and they had governed Sirmium until 582 AD, when it was taken over by Avars.