The Army & Battles

Army Overview
List of Major Battles

Legionary Helmets of the Roman Period

by Iain Dickson, ‘Melvadius Macrinus Cugerni’ Sculptural Evidence Many sculptures have been found showing the Roman army in operation as well as individual memorial monuments to soldiers. The workmanship on these …

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The Re-Conquest of Africa (AD 533)

by Gary Julian It is as if there is a “code of silence” among Historians in general, and Military Historians in particular, on the career of Count Belisarius of the Eastern …

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The Persian Wars of Heraclius

by Kurs In this article, I will try to throw some light on the Persian campaigns of the emperor Heraclius (who reigned AD 610 – 641), which in most historical …

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Aurelian’s Campaign in the East

AD 272/273 by ‘Emperor Aurelianus’ Background to the Conflict The conflict between Zenobia of Palmyra and Aurelian took place for the most part in 272ad, in the second year of …

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Army Soldier Dress, Armor, & Weapons

A collection of pictures of soldiers with their armour/equipment (recreated from historical accounts). Hoplite (5th century BC) Veles, plural: velites (3rd/2nd century BC) Hastatus (3rd/2nd Century BC) Triarius (3rd/2nd Century BC) …

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Siege Warfare

Siege Tactics In conducting sieges the Romans showed their practical genius combined with ruthless thoroughness. If a place could not be overcome by the initial assaults or the inhabitants persuaded …

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Roman Navy

The Roman Navy was always considered an inferior arm and was strictly under army control. But already during the First Punic War, Rome proved itself capable of launching a fleet …

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Military Training

Marching and Physical Training The first thing the soldiers were taught to do, was to march. The historian Vegetius tells us that it was seen as of greatest importance to …

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Army Career

Roman society was governed by class and so in effect there was three separate army careers possible, that of the common soldier in the ranks, that of the equestrians and …

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Becoming a Soldier

The Recruit of the Republican Army (before the Reforms of Marius) War offered the Roman citizen of the republic the possibility of returning covered in glory, having won both land …

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The Auxilia

There were three kinds of units in the auxilia of the early empire. The cavalry alae, the infantry cohorts and the mixed infantry and horsemen cohortes equitatae. The Ala (The …

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The Roman Standards

Nothing in military history quite matches the Roman standards. Perhaps the closest equivalent are the regimental colours in contemporary armies. The standards, the signa were a recognition signal and a …

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Legion Name List

This is not a complete list of all legions, but a listing of examples of legionary nick-names and their origins. NAME ORIGIN OF NAME TIME OF CREATION I Adiutrix pia …

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Roman Military Tactics

Information about tactics can be derived from accounts of battles, but the very military manuals known to have existed and to have been used extensively by commanders, have not survived. …

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