’Early Republic’

510 Expulsion of the last Tarquinian king, Tarquinius Superbus. Brutus liberates Rome. Establishment of a republic headed by two praetors (later called consuls) elected annually

509 Treaty between Rome and Carthage

507 Consecration of the Temple of Jupiter on the Capitol

504 Migration of the Sabine Claudii clan to Rome

501 Appointment of the first dictator

496 Battle of Lake Regillus between Rome and Latin League

494 First secession of the plebeians on the Mons Sacer, several miles from Rome. Creation of the tribunes of the people.

493 Treaty with the Latins

491 Coriolanus impeached and condemned to exile

486 Wars with the Aequi and Volsci begin (continue with many intervals for the next fifty years)

482-474 War with Veii

479 Veii wins the Battle of Cremera

474 The Greek city-states in Italy win a naval battle at Cumae and crush Etruscan power in Campania

471 Creation of the concilium Plebis. Office of the tribunes officially recognized

457 Aequi win Battle at Mt. Algidus. Cincinnatus becomes dictator for sixteen days and rescues remaining Roman army

c. 451 Decemvirs tyrants of Rome. Code of the Twelve Tables lays the basis for Roman law

449 Fall of the decemvirs. Powers of the tribunes defined.

447 Quaestors elected by the people

443 Censorship established

431 Decisive defeat of the Aequi at Mt. Algidus

428 Rome conquers Fidenae (from Veii)

421 Quaestors increased to four, open to plebeians

c. 396 The Roman dictator Camillus conquers Veii, one of the principal Etruscan centers, after long siege. Introduction of military pay. Peace with the Volsci.

390 (or 387!) Romans defeated by the Gauls under Brennus at the Battle of Allia. Gauls sack Rome, only the Capitol is defended by the citizenry

388 Aequi defeated at Bola

386-5 Latins, Volsci and Hernici defeated

381 Tusculum conquered

c. 378 Erection of the Roman city wall traditionally but erroneously credited to King Servius Tullius, who reigned two centuries earlier

377 Latins defeated after their capture of Satricum

367 Lex Liciniae Sextiae: Consulship restored, plebeians admitted to the office of consul

366 First plebeian consul

361 Romans capture Ferentinum

359 Revolt of Tarquinii

358 Treaty with Latins

357 Maximum amount of interest fixed. Falerii revolts. Gauls raid Latium.

356 First plebeian dictator

354 Alliance of Rome and Samnites

353 Caere defeated

351 First plebeian censor

349 Gallic raid checked

346 Defeat of Antium and Satricum

348 Treaty with the Carthaginians

343-1 First Samnite War, Romans occupy northern Campania

340-338 Latin War: Rome conquers the seaport of Antium

338 Latin League dissolved. Many cities granted full or partial citizenship

337 First plebeian praetor

334 Alexander of Macedon begins his eastward campaign

332 Treaty with Tarentum (possibly 303 BC)

c. 330 Colony founded at Ostia

329 Privernum captured

328 Etruria and Campania annexed

326-304 Second Samnite War: Rome increases its influence in southernmost Italy

321 Samnites entrap and defeat Roman army at Caudine Forks. Romans forced to accept a truce. Rome surrenders Fregellae

c. 320 Colonies founded: Luceria (314, Canusium (318), Alba Fucens (303), Carsioli (298), Minturnae (296), Sinuessa (296), thus extending Roman sway into Apulia, the Abruzzi, and southern Italy

315 Luceria captured. Samnite victory at Lautulae. Capua revolts and joins Samnites

314 Roman victory at Tarracina. Capua conquered

313 Fregellae and Sora captured

312 Censorship of Appius Claudius. Via Appia, connecting Rome and Capua, and Aqua Appia begun

310 Treaties with Cortona, Perusia and Arretium

307 Revolt of Hernici

306 Anagnia conquered and granted limited citizenship

304 Aequi defeated. Under the censor Fabius Maximus Rullianus landless new citizens are assigned to four tribes in the city

300 Lex Ogulnia: plebeians admitted to priestly offices

298-290 Third Samnite War: Rome becomes all-powerful in southern Italy

298 Rome captures Bovanium Vetus and Aufidena

295 Roman victory over Samnites, Gauls and Umbirnas at Sentinum

294 Samnite victory at near Luceria

293 Roman victory over Samnites at Aquilona

292 Falerii conquered

291 Venusia conquered

290 The Sabines submit to Roman rule and receive limited citizenship. Peace with Samnites.

287 Lex Hortensia: conflict between social orders placated by conceding same voting rights to all

283 Boii defeated at Lake Vadimo

282 Rome conquers territory still held by the Gauls along the Adriatic, Roman Fleet attacked by Tarentum

280-275 War against king Phyrrus of Epirus

280 Phyrrus lands in Italy and defeats Romans at Heraclea

279 Roman defeat at Battle of Asculum

278 Roman treaty with Carthage. Pyrrhus leaves Italy for Sicily.

275 Pyrrhus returns to Italy but is defeated near Malventum and leaves Italy for good.

272 Surrender of Tarentum

270 Capture of Rhegium

269 Earliest Roman minting of coins

268 Picentes conquered and granted limited citizenship

267 War with Sallentini. Capture of Brundisium

266 Apulia and Messapia reduced to alliance

264 Introduction of gladiatorial shows in Rome. Capture of Volsinii. Roman alliance with Mamertines.

264-241 First Punic War: Rome comes to the defence of the Greek cities in Sicily against Carthage

263 Hiero of Syracuse becomes ally of Romei

262 Capture of Agrigentum

261-260 Rome builds fleet

260 Naval victory of Mylae. Capture of Rhegium

259 Roman occupation of Corsica

257 Naval victory of Tyndaris

256 Naval victory of Ecnomus. Romans land in Africa

255 Romans defeated in Africa. Naval victory off Cape Hermaeum. Fleet wrecked off Pachynus

254 Capture of Panormus

253 Roman fleet wrecked of Palinurus

250 Victory at Panormus. Siege of Lilybaeum

249 Carthaginian naval victory at Drepana

247 Hamilcar Barca begins Carthaginian offensive in western Sicily

241 Naval victory off Aegates Insulae. Peace with Carthage. Occupation of Sicily which is made a Roman province. Construction of the Via Aurelia from Rome to Pisa

238 Romans oust Carthaginians from Sardinia and Corsica

237 Hamilcar goes to Spain

236 Gallic raids in northern Italy

230 Hasdrubal succeeds Hamilcar in Spain

229 First Illyrian War Roman influence established on Illyrian coast

226 Treaty defining river Iberus (Ebro) as border of influence between Rome and Carthage

225-222 Celtic War: conquest of Cisalpine Gaul

225 Invading Gauls defeated at Telamon

223 Flaminius defeats insubres

222 Battle of Clastidium. Surrender of Insubres

221 Hannibal succeeds Hasdrubal in Spain

220 Censorship of Flaminius. Via Flaminia begun

219 Second Illyrian War. Conquest of Illyria. Hannibal captures Saguntum.

218-201 Second Punic War

218 Hannibal crosses Alps and arrives in northern Italy. Battle of Ticinus and Battle of Trebia.

217 Roman defeat at Lake Trasimene. Naval victory off river Iberus (Ebro)

216 Roman defeat at Cannae. Capua revolts.

215 Hannibal in southern Italy. Alliance of Carthage with Philip of Macedon and with Syracuse after death of Hiero. Hasdrubal defeated at Dertosa.

214-205 First Macedonian War

213 Hannibal occupies Tarentum (except for the citadel). Roman siege of Syracuse.

212 Siege of Capura

211 Introduction of the denarius coin. Hannibal's march on Rome. Fall of Capua and Syracuse. Defeat of the Scipios in Spain.

210 Fall of Agrigentum. Scipio lands in Spain.

209 Recapture of Tarentum. Capture of Carthago Nova.

208 Death of Marcellus. Battle of Baecula.

207 Hasdrubal defeated at Metaurus

206 Battle of Ilipa near Seville: Carthaginian rule collapses in Spain

205 Scipio in Sicily.

204 Cult stone of the mother goddess brought from Asia Minor to Rome. Scipio lands in Africa.

203 Scipio defeats Syphax and wins battle of the Great Plains. Hannibal recalled to Carthage. Mago defeated in Gaul.

202 Scipio's victory at Zama. Rome succeeds Carthage as ruler of the western Mediterranean. Aggressions of Philip and Antiochus.

200-197 Second Macedonian War

197 Macedonians war ends with defeat of Philip V by T. Quinctius Flamininus at Cynoscephalae. Spain organized into two provinces. Revolt of Turdenati in Spain. Antiochus occupies Ephesus.

196 Marcus Porcius Cato consul

195 Hannibal exiled, joins Antiochus. Masinissa starts raids on Carthaginian territory.

192-188 Rome wars against King Antiochus II of Seleucia

191 Antiochus defeated at Thermopylae. Antiochus' fleet defeated off Corycus.

190 The Scipios in Greece. Antiochus' fleet defeated.

189 Antiochus defeated at Magnesia, Campanians enrolled as citizens. Fall of Ambracia. Peace with Aetolia. Manlius raids Galatia/

188 Peace of Apamea means end of war with Antiochus

187 Construction of Via Aemilia and Via Flaminia

184 Cato censor.

184/3 Death of Scipio

183/2 Death of Hannibal

181-179 First Celtiberian War

179 Accession of Perseus to the throne of Macedon

172 Two plebeian consuls in office for the first time

171-168 Third Macedonian War

168 Defeat of Macedonian King Perseus at Pydna

167 Epirus plundered. Macedon divided into four parts, Illyricum into four.

157-155 Campaigns in Dalmatia and Pannonia

154-138 Lusitanian War

153-151 Second Celtiberian War

151 Carthage declares war on Masinissa

149-146 Third Punic War

149 Siege of Carthage begun. Rising of Andriscus in Macedonia.

147 Macedonia annexed as a Roman province

146 Destruction of Carthage. Africa annexed as a province. Achaean War: Roman wars against the league of Greek cities. Corinth destroyed by the Romans

143-133 Third Celtiberian War (also called Numantine War)

142 Censorship of Scipio Aemilianus. Stone bridge over the Tiber.

137 Defeat and surrender of Mancinus in Spain

135-132 Slave War in Sicily

134 Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus becomes people's tribune in the absence of the Consul Scipio Aemilianus. His assassination in 133 sparks open class conflict in Rome

133 King Attalus II bequeaths Pergamum by Testament to Rome. Scipio Aemilianus sacks Numantia and settles Spain.

129 Death of Scipio Aemilianus. Province of Asia organized.

124 War against Arverni and Allobroges in Gaul