'Early Emperors'

23 The Senate grants Augustus the titles and powers of Imperium proconsulare maius and tribunicia potestas for life, thereby turning over to him complete control of the State and ending the Roman Republic

21-19 Without bloodshed Augustus wins back from King Phraates IV the Roman standards lost to the Parthians in 53

17 Secular Games (Ludi saeculares) celebrated as symbol of the new Golden Age brought in by Augustus

15 The territory of the Raeti and Celtic Vincelici (Tyrol,Bavaria,Switzerland) subdued, the new province of Raetia instituted

13 July 4, consecration ceremony of the Altar of Peace (ara Pacis) voted by the Senate to honor Augustus

12 Augustus takes title and position of Pontifex Maximus

13-9 Campaigns in Pannoia

12-9 Campaigns in Germany

9 30 January, dedication of the completed Ara Pacis Augustae

5 Gaius Caesar, grandson of Augustus, named heir presumptive, princeps juventutis

4 most likely date for Birth of Jesus Christ

2 Augustus is awarded the honourific title of pater patriae. Lucius Caesar, brother of Gaius, likewise is name Princeps juventutis


2 Lucius Caesar dies in Massilia

4 Gaius Caesar dies in Lycia from a wound sustained in battle eighteen months earlier

6-9 Pannonian revolt suppressed by Tiberius

9 Roman army under Varus suffers overwhelming defeat in the Teutoburg Forest in campaign against the Cherusci

14 August 19, Augustus dies at Nola. On September 17 the Senate elevates him to the pantheon of State gods, an honor he had himself prepared by building a temple to the Divius Julius

14-37 Tiberius emperor

14-16 Germanicus, nephew and adopted heir of Tiberius leads campaign in Germany. Germans evacuated to the right bank of the Rhine

19 Mysterious death (by poison?) of Germanicus in Antioch

21-22 The Praetorian Guard in Rome is concentrated into a single huge barracks (the Castra Praetoria), a move engineered by their prefect Sejanus to make them into a political force

26 Tiberius saved by Sejanus when his grotto-villa at Sperlonga caves in. The emperor, rarely in the capital, retires to Capri

26-31 Sejanus becomes all-powerful in Rome but is arrested and executed on October 18, AD 31

37 March March 16, death of Tiberius

37-41 Caligula emperor

39-40 To justify his military pretensions Caligula launches an abortive campaign against Germany and Britain

41 January 24, Caligula, his wife, and his only child are murdered

41-54 Claudius emperor

43-44 Britain brought under Roman rule

54-68 Claudius posisoned by his wife Agrippina, Nero emperor

62 Earthquake at Pompeii and nearby Vesuvian towns

64 Great fire in Rome. Persecution of Christians

65 Conspiracy against Nero by C. Calpurnius Piso is exposed and the plotters, among them Seneca and his nephew Lucan, executed

67 Nero in Greece

68 With revolts blazing in Gaul, Spain, and Africa as well as among the Praetorian Guard in Rome, Nero flees and commits suicide

68-69 First crisis of the Empire: year of the Four Emperors Galba, Otho, Vitallius, Vespasian. On July 1, AD 69, Vespasian is proclaimed emperor but almost six months pass before he can eliminate rivals and enter Rome

69-79 Vespasian emperor, initiating Flavian dynasty

70 Titus, elder son of Vespasian, takes Jerusalem and destroys the Temple

79-81 Titus, co-regent since 71, sole ruler after death of his father in 79

79 August 24, eruption of Vesuvius buries Pompeii, Heraculaneum, and Stabiae

80 Great fire in Rome

81-96 Domitian, younger son of Vespasian, emperor

83-85 Campaigns against the Chatti in western Germany; building of border fortifications (limesin Germany

86-90 Difficulties with the Dacians settled by making King Decebalus a client-ruler

95 Expulsion of philosophers from Italy

96 Nerva emperor upon assassination of Domitian